Berlinda Liu

Director, Global Research & Design
S&P Dow Jones Indices
Biography

Berlinda Liu is Director, Global Research & Design at S&P Dow Jones Indices (S&P DJI). In this role, she is responsible for quantitative research & design covering volatility, commodity, and other derivative-based indices and strategies.

Berlinda joined Standard & Poor's in December 2007. Prior to S&P DJI, she was an equity derivatives strategist at both Bear Stearns, London, and Credit Suisse, New York, where she joined as a business analyst.

Berlinda is a CFA charterholder. She holds a bachelor’s degree in international business management from Wuhan University of China and a master’s degree in information system management from Carnegie Mellon University, in addition to her master’s degree in computational finance from Carnegie Mellon.

Author Archives: Berlinda Liu

Does Size Affect the Active versus Passive Score of Small-Cap Mutual Funds?

In my earlier blog, we explored the effect of size on active large-cap equity funds’ performance. We ranked all long-only active large-cap equity funds by their size at the beginning of the observation period and divided them into quartiles, with the first quartile being the largest and the fourth being the smallest. We found that, Read more […]

VIX® Dropped Below S&P 500® Realized Volatility

While everyone has been concerned about the inverted yield curve, the CBOE Volatility Index® (VIX) has been under the 21-trading-day realized volatility of the S&P 500 since Aug. 16, 2019. Since volatility traders care not only about what is expected but also what actually transpired, the spread between implied volatility and realized volatility is one Read more […]

Size Matters for Active Large-Cap Fund Performance

Over the 15-year period ending March 31, 2019, the biggest 25% of active large-cap equity funds managed about 90% of all the assets under management (AUM) held in active large-cap equity funds. This may suggest that investors’ fund selections skew toward larger funds. But is bigger always better? This topic has been widely debated: although Read more […]

For Active Managers, Staying on Top Is Not Enough

S&P DJI’s Mid-Year 2019 Persistence Scorecard may offer a hint of encouragement for active fund managers. Performance persistence, measured over the three-year period ending March 2019, rose from prior periods. Among the domestic equity funds that were in the top quartile as of March 2017, 11.36% were able to go on and maintain their top-quartile Read more […]

Why the Volatility Spike is the Low Volatility Strategy’s Best Friend

The first half of 2019 saw one of the biggest rallies in the domestic market; the S&P 500® rose 18.54% on a total return basis despite concerns of slow economic growth, a trade war, and a possible rate hike. During the same period, the S&P 500 Low Volatility Index surprised the market and rose even Read more […]

Are Active Funds Better at Managing Risks? Not Really.

In investing, risk and return are two sides of the same coin; the expected returns of an asset must be accompanied by variation or uncertainty around the outcome of those returns. All else equal, higher-risk assets should be compensated, on average, by higher returns. The same philosophy applies to performance evaluation. The performance of both Read more […]

Volatility Test: Defensive Factor Indices versus Actively Managed Funds

Indices based on factors such as low volatility and quality generally have defensive characteristics. These strategies tend to outperform the broad benchmark in down markets, as previous studies have shown.  Yet some market participants also believe that active management fares somewhat better than the benchmark in periods of volatility and distress. In 2018, the S&P Read more […]

2018 SPIVA® Scorecard: Volatility Does Not Help Active Performance

Contrary to the myth that active managers tend to fare better than their benchmarks during volatile markets, 68.83% of domestic equity funds lagged the S&P Composite 1500® during the one-year period ending Dec. 31, 2018, making 2018 the fourth-worst year for active U.S. equity managers since 2001 (see Exhibit 1). Evidence from the SPIVA U.S. Read more […]

Quantifying Fee Drag on Investment Returns

The impact of fees on investment returns is a widely studied and much debated topic. Over the past decade, as index-linked, lower-cost passive investing has taken hold, fees have become a greater focus. In recent years, there have been several studies published examining the impact of fees on performance. The U.K’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), Read more […]

SPIVA® U.S. Mid-Year 2018 Summary

The latest results from the SPIVA U.S. Mid-Year 2018 Scorecard show improvement in the relative performance of actively managed domestic equity funds against their respective benchmarks. During the one-year period ending June 30, 2018, the overall percentage of all domestic funds outperforming the S&P Composite 1500® increased to 42.02%, compared with six months prior (36.57%). Read more […]